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Developing care and concern for their community and environment

During the learning activities, students can be encouraged to consider the following statement:

"The Olympic Movement views sport, blended with culture and education, as an invaluable means of educating people, cultivating aesthetic appreciation, developing positive attitudes and values, fostering friendships among people, and bringing people from different nations together."

Suggested learning outcomes

Students will:

  • identify and describe the effect of competition in sport on people's attitudes and behaviour (4C1);
  • identify the positive outcomes of supporting group and team members during physical activity and sport (5C1);
  • develop and practise strategies for managing competitive situations, during physical activity and sport, that result in positive outcomes (5C1);
  • identify and practise personal and interpersonal skills needed to be supportive and positive in a group or team situation (4/5C3);
  • investigate a societal influence on competition (for example, the news media) and analyse its effects on the attitudes of students during class or school sporting events (5D1).

Underlying concepts

Hauora: Understanding the positive outcomes of supporting others.

Health promotion: Developing a charter and supportive practices to ensure their own emotional safety and that of others.

Socio-ecological perspective: Recognising the need for and benefits of caring for and supporting others. Understanding how the media influences people's attitudes and behaviours in physical activity and sport.

Attitudes and values: Developing care and concern for others.

Possible learning activities

Being a team

The experiential learning model provides a suitable teaching strategy for this activity. During the activity, students could also explore and develop their own attitudes and values using the sequence described below. For the Being a Team activity, the students are divided into groups of about five. One additional student is attached to each group as a peer observer.

Experiential learning model

The "experience" is the focal point. Students are encouraged to reflect on their experience and process their reflections to facilitate learning. The model is cyclic and involves the following steps: Experience. Reflect – what happened? Generalise – so what? Apply – now what? Experience again.

References

Luckner, J. L. and R. S. Nadler. Processing the Experience: Strategies to Enhance and Generalize Learning.

Kraft, R. J. and J. Kielsmeier. Experiential Learning in Schools and Higher Education.

The experience

Task 1

Students work in their groups. Give all students except the observers a set time to practise bowling at wickets, working towards using the correct technique. The peer observers are asked to observe all interactions in the group throughout the activity. Give them each a prepared recording sheet on which to note the following information about their group:

  • How many times did each student bowl?
  • Did anyone take on a leadership role? If so, how?
  • Did anyone take on a coaching role? If so, how?
  • What comments were made to group members from within the group?

The observers should record all comments, positive, negative, and neutral.

Exploring attitudes and values

Students can explore attitudes and values in physical education through the following sequence.

  • Identify and clarify your own attitudes and values.
  • Identify similarities and differences between your own attitudes and values and those of others.
  • Explore and seek to understand your own feelings and those of others.
  • Explore conflicting attitudes and values.
  • Consider alternative attitudes and values and the implications of acting on them.
  • Make an action plan.

Reference: Lemin, M., H. Potts, and P. Welsford. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

Task 2

Give the students three minutes in which each team is to aim to hit the wickets as often as possible, competing with the other groups to gain the most hits (points). Tell the students that their group will lose points if a group member uses incorrect techniques.

During the competition, the observers note any changes in the behaviours of group members.

Debrief

Reflect – what happened?

Each peer observer sits with their group and describes what they observed. The group discusses:

  • why some people may have had more turns than others;
  • whether they helped each other learn the technique;
  • how any positive or negative comments made them feel;
  • what attitudes and behaviours were displayed;
  • what influences there were on group members' attitudes and behaviours;
  • in what ways competition influenced people's attitudes and behaviours;
  • how competition affected the co-operative nature of the group;
  • what positive outcomes there were when one group member supported another.

Generalise – so what?

Question the groups to provide students with further opportunities to explore their attitudes and behaviours towards each other. Activities for group work could include:

  • listing the skills and attitudes needed to be a positive, supportive group member;
  • discussing ways of supporting group members who find that competition moves their attitude or behaviours away from the skills and attitudes that they have listed;
  • identifying the links between their list of skills and attitudes and the Olympic ideals.

Apply – now what?

Students can consider the wider implications of their experience in this activity and can plan how they might use their learning in further practice of their bowling skill. Students can again practise bowling, applying newly learned ideas. The observers note any changes and report back to their groups. The groups can then discuss the improvements they have made and areas still to be worked on.

Teachers' notes

  • The first activity uses cricket bowling as an example but could easily be modified to use any physical skills that have been taught to the class and in which class members have a range of skill levels.
  • The first activity should be followed up by opportunities for further practice of the skills (including social and co-operative skills) that the group members needed so that they could work well together.
  • Ensure that the observers are well briefed and be prepared to give them support during the debrief.
  • Refer back to the class charter.
  • Use questions to enhance thinking and learning. Encourage students to link their learning to other aspects of their lives.

Assessment opportunities

  • Students can record the skills needed to participate co-operatively in a supportive group (5C3).
  • Students can describe and evaluate their own positive involvement and interactions with others during physical activity and sport (4/5C3).
  • Students can create a collage or poster that depicts the media's influence on competition (5D1).

Further activities

  • Students can identify how the news media influences competition in physical activity and sport. They could compare their own views as spectators of a local sports competition with news media reports on the same game, for example, by:
  • Analysing and highlighting any differences between their observations and the media reports (what was reported and how it was reported);
  • Examining how the media reported and portrayed (1) the game itself, (2) winning and losing;
  • Identifying ways that the media can influence competition positively or negatively and presenting this information as a poster or collage;
  • Reflecting on how such influences may impact on their own attitudes and behaviour and those of others during physical education classes, in school sporting events, and during their participation in sport in their communities.
  • Students can develop a class charter for group work, based on considering the outcomes of the initial activity, the Olympic ideals, and the role of sport in the Olympic Movement. The charter could provide a basis for all further group activities.
  • Students can investigate and prepare reports on Olympic programmes*, in which sport is blended with culture and education to promote Olympism (for example, such programmes may be based on the environment, health, humanitarian action, gender equality, sport for all, culture, and the arts). * Refer to Understanding Olympism, page 9, for information about Olympic programmes.
  • In groups, students can investigate an assigned Olympic image or statement – for example, the symbol, the flame, or the New Zealand Olympic emblem (below). They can develop an understanding of the significance of the image or statement and find out how the Olympic ideal(s) relating to it apply to physical activity and to life as a whole. Using movement or dance as the context, each group could choreograph and perform a sequence that represents the meaning of their image or statement. Their performance could include explaining an image and its associated Olympic ideal(s).
  • Students can debate the relevance of the Olympic motto, "Citius, altius, fortius". They could consider how the interpretation of the motto has changed over time. (For example, originally the motto was about striving to be the best you can be within the Olympic spirit, but today some athletes appear to believe they should use any possible means to become swifter, higher, or stronger.) As a result of their debate, students can identify social and cultural influences that have led to any changes in interpretation and consider how these influences impact on sport within their school and community. They could go on to consider ways that the original message and spirit of this motto might impact on everyday life for themselves and their community.

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