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Overview of teaching in HPE
Students learn best when teachers:
- create a supportive learning environment
- encourage reflective thought and action
- enhance the relevance of new learning
- facilitate shared learning
- make connections to prior learning and experience
- provide sufficient opportunities to learn
- inquire into the teaching-learning relationship.
Engaging with students
By engaging with students’ unique personal experiences and knowledge, teachers can create a safe and supportive learning environment that allows students to lead their own learning.
Learning is inseparable from its social and cultural context.
Effective teachers foster positive relationships within environments that are caring, inclusive, non-discriminatory, and cohesive.
A learner-centric interactive approach connects with the lived experience of students and contributes to their sense of personal well-being.
Students learn most effectively when they understand what they are learning, why they are learning it, and how they will be able to use their new learning.
Fostering a learning community encourages everyone (including student, teacher, parent, wider community) to learn from and with each other. Learning conversations and learning partnerships are promoted, as students engage in reflective discourse with others.
Students learn best when they are able to integrate new learning with what they already understand and when they have time and opportunity to engage with, practise, and transfer new learning.
Teaching as Inquiry
Effective pedagogy requires that teachers inquire into the impact of their teaching on students. A cyclical process is suggested whereby teachers inquire (focusing inquiry), through checking on prior knowledge and asking what is important given where their students are at, as to what learning is needed.
This in turn leads to teaching inquiry – whereby teachers adopt an inquiry process, using evidence from research and from their own and others' best practice, to plan teaching and learning opportunities aimed at achieving the outcome prioritised in the focusing inquiry.
Lastly, teachers will inquire, using a range of assessment practices, as to whether their students' learning has met, or is making progress, towards the prioritised outcome/s. This analysis and interpretation then provides part of the knowledge base in focusing inquiry for next step learning. (The New Zealand Curriculum, 2007, pages 34–35)
Best Evidence Synthesis mechanisms applied to health education, physical education, and home economics
Connection – make connections to students’ lives.
Programmes of learning are relevant, needs-based, and guided by The New Zealand Curriculum (2007).
Who are my students? Consider age, gender, ethnicity, ability to self-manage, their personal interests, and their school community environment.
Alignment – align experiences to important outcomes.
Alignment involves creating a convergence between the learning experiences you will provide and the purpose.
It happens best when:
- prior knowledge is identified
- the purpose of the learning episode is clear
- there is more than one opportunity to engage with the information
- the learning sequence is logical and consistent.
Community – build and sustain a learning community.
Relationships are the basis of any community, and the learning community of the class provides a safe and supportive environment.
In health education, physical education, or home economics this could involve:
- teacher and students co-constructing what and how to learn
- giving equal emphasis to biophysical as well as socio-cultural sciences
- giving students the opportunity to negotiate the focus of their research topic so they are part of the learning process
- promoting respectful relationships in the classroom so students learn what it means to belong to and participate in a learning community
- exploring values, and clarifying attitudes and beliefs as part of the underlying concepts that underpin the learning area
- creating a safe learning environment for students to be comfortable sharing experiences about issues, such as apartheid in sport, or behaviours around alcohol consumption, or rights of indigenous peoples, where they hold values positions that are different to others
- being aware of students’ cultural and religious backgrounds and the richness this brings to any programme.
Interest – design experiences that interest students.
For teachers this mechanism highlights that not all students are motivated in the same way and some activities are more engaging than others.
This could be particularly evident in movement contexts. A variety of experience makes learning more memorable and increases the likelihood of drawing in a greater number of your diverse learners.
Through co-constructing, students are given the opportunity to choose the strategy by which to learn.
Inquiry based learning, group work, and many other teaching strategies such as the action competence learning process, lend themselves well to allow students to take responsibility for their learning.
Being able to negotiate the criteria for success, and choose the presentation form when conducting a socio-cultural inquiry, allows students to work to their strengths.
For a comprehensive and very user-friendly guide, see Effective Pedagogy in Social Sciences/Tikanga ā Iwi Best Evidence Synthesis [BES].