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Appendix 3: Models of teaching and learning in physical education

The following three models of physical education - the technocratic, humanistic, and socio-critical models - are consistent, respectively, with the behavioural change, self-empowerment, and collective action models of health education described on the 'Models of health promotion' page.

Using the models to implement the Curriculum

Each of these models is used in the teaching of physical education, although the technocratic model was perhaps more dominant in the past. To maximise the opportunities presented in the current curriculum, teachers of physical education are encouraged to move beyond the technocratic model and incorporate the humanistic and socio-critical models in their teaching and learning programmes.

Summary of the three physical education models

Technocratic model

Humanistic model

Socio-critical model

The focus is on physical skill development – learning in movement. Movement is used for self-development, recognising physical and social dimensions – learning through movement The focus is on all aspects of the movement culture – learning in, through, and about movement.
Health promotion is for physical health through fitness development. The focus is primarily on the individual's development; personal identity and empowerment are important. Health promotion is conceptualised in its broadest sense, emphasising that well-being is affected by a broad range of contextual factors.
There is no time for exploring the holistic nature of movement. Creativity, spontaneity, challenge, and playfulness are encouraged. This model recognises and explores the role, significance, influence, and functions of movement both for the individual and for society.
Teaching is characterised by the direct style: "This is how you do it". The teaching style is characterised by inquiry-based and problem-solving methods. The teaching style utilises the reflective process and the critical-thinking teaching and learning approach for personal and community empowerment.
The model is characterised by a scientific approach to movement. The model moves towards a balance between the scientific and the social aspects of movement. The model ensures that the scientific, physical, social, economic, ethical, and political dimensions of movement are all explored.