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Teaching methods

Helping students to learn

  • A synthesis of current research indicates that what happens in the classroom is the main school-system factor contributing to improved learning outcomes for diverse students (Quality Teaching for Diverse Students in Schooling: Best Evidence Synthesis, 2003). The ways teachers design activities, give feedback to students, and organise instruction can create positive peer cultures and learning communities. Teachers who provide feedback to students, giving them frequent information about how well they have understood and performed the current learning activity and how they might achieve their next learning step, are giving them real, practical help that will have positive results. Students can be given feedback on their achievement of intended outcomes in the context of the key area of learning sport studies, for which learning experiences are suggested in this book.
  • Effective teachers also set specific, appropriate, and challenging goals for their students. Students who are involved in setting these learning goals and who then receive feedback while working towards them are more committed to achieving the goals and do, in fact, achieve better results. Innovation is also important. Teachers who consistently review their practices and try out new models, methods, and processes are likely to improve the quality of learning for their students.

Olympism: Attitudes and Values in Physical Education, page 10

Through te ao kori learning experiences, it's important for teachers to:

  • show appreciation and acknowledgement of students' prior learning and knowledge;
  • assist students in making links in their learning with other curriculum areas;
  • affirm appropriate behaviour, individual effort, and culturally appropriate activities that follow tikanga (see Tikanga Guidelines).

Teachers are also encouraged to investigate and use a range of teaching models, methods, and processes (available under Planning Considerations)


Tuakana/teina refers to the relationship between an older (tuakana) person and a younger (teina) person and is specific to teaching and learning in the Māori context. Within teaching and learning contexts, this can take a variety of forms:

  • Peer to peer – teina teaches teina, tuakana teaches tuakana.
  • Younger to older – the teina has some skills in an area that the tuakana does not and is able to teach the tuakana.
  • Older to younger – the tuakana has the knowledge and content to pass on to the teina.
  • Able to less able – the learner may not be as able in an area, and someone more skilled can teach what is required.