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The essential skills

Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum (1999) makes a unique and significant contribution to the development of the essential skills described in The New Zealand Curriculum Framework.

Physical Skills

Students develop physical skills necessary for daily living when they have opportunities to:

  • develop fundamental movement skills
  • use physical skills:
    • to extend their personal capabilities
    • for personal expression in play, games, dance, and daily life
    • in competition situations
  • demonstrate physical skills for personal safety, first aid, and relaxation.

Self-management and Competitive Skills

Students develop the skills and processes required for self-management, change, and competition when they have opportunities to:

  • demonstrate a sense of self-worth and personal identity
  • show initiative, integrity, commitment, perseverance, courage, tolerance, and adaptability
  • demonstrate the skills of self-appraisal and self-advocacy
  • set, evaluate, and achieve realistic goals
  • manage time and other resources effectively
  • approach challenge, change, stress, conflict, competition, and feelings of success and failure in constructive ways
  • exercise self-discipline and take responsibility for their own actions and decisions
  • take responsibility for their own health, physical activity, and safety, using appropriate skills to protect their bodies from harm and abuse.


Communication Skills

Students develop communication skills when they have opportunities to:

  • express their needs and feelings clearly and confidently
  • respond sensitively to the needs and feelings of other people
  • listen, assert themselves, advocate, mediate, and negotiate
  • demonstrate skills of discrimination and critical analysis, particularly in relation to information provided by the media
  • use up-to-date information and communication technologies.


Problem-solving Skills

Students develop problem-solving through learning experiences that provide opportunities to:

  • think critically, creatively, reflectively, and logically
  • identify, describe, and redefine problems and analyse them from a variety of perspectives
  • make connections and establish relationships
  • enquire, research, and explore options and consequences
  • evaluate processes, decisions, actions, and outcomes.


Social and Co-operative Skills

Students develop social and co-operative skills when they have opportunities to:

  • demonstrate:
    • effective relationships with other people and work in co-operative ways to achieve common goals
    • principles of fair play in situations where people are involved in physical activities
    • a sense of responsibility for the well-being of other people and for the environment
    • consideration for other people
  • participate
    • appropriately in a range of social, cultural, and physical settings
    • effectively as responsible citizens in a democratic society
  • exercise leadership skills
  • recognise and respond appropriately to discriminatory practices and behaviours
  • acknowledge individual differences and demonstrate respect for the rights of all people
  • show such qualities as integrity, reliability, trustworthiness, aroha, fairness, diligence, tolerance, and manaakitanga
  • use negotiation and conflict resolution skills to find positive solutions or to help a group reach consensus.


Information Skills, Numeracy Skills, and Work and Study Skills

As students develop knowledge and understanding in health education and physical education, the importance of information skills, work and study skills, and numeracy skills increases.

Students will be required to collect, retrieve, process, and interpret data and to use appropriate technologies to present it.

Health education and physical education encourage students to develop sound working habits, to work independently as well as in groups, and to take increasing responsibility for their own learning.