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Planning considerations

Teachers could begin planning by gathering a range of information about the body care and physical safety learning needs of their students and by considering whether any of the possible learning outcomes here might meet these learning needs. After discussing appropriate learning outcomes with their students, teachers could refer to the related learning experiences in this book and choose activities, from here or elsewhere, that are most likely to help the students achieve their next learning steps. For example, to help them achieve the learning outcome “students will describe instances when medication is necessary and explain how to use it responsibly”, a teacher might refer to the “Stop, Take, Tell” learning experience and assess their students’ ability to recognise when asthma medication is necessary and to respond appropriately when someone shows symptoms of asthma.

Within a particular context, teachers can combine activities that develop achievement objectives from different strands. Activities should build on each other and promote individual or group responsibility for learning. Because body care and physical safety directly involve the everyday lives of students, teachers’ planning of units of work and selection of learning materials should take into account their students’ prior knowledge and experiences, their attitudes, values, and preferences, and their social, cultural, ethnic, and economic backgrounds. Practical skills are also an important component of the programme.

Factors Affecting Learning

Research into key factors that have a positive effect on students’ learning (Hattie, 1999) indicates that innovative, responsive teachers can make a real difference to the achievements of their students. The single most significant factor is feedback. Teachers who provide feedback to students, giving them frequent information about how well they have understood and performed the current learning task, are giving them real, practical help that will have positive results.

Effective teachers give feedback; they also set specific, appropriate, and challenging goals for their students. Students who are involved in setting these learning goals and who then receive feedback while working towards them are more committed to achieving the goals and do in fact achieve better results. Innovation is also important. Teachers who consistently review their practices and try out new models, methods, and processes are likely to improve the quality of learning for their students.

Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes provide a clear focus for teachers and students and describe the learning that is expected to occur as a result of particular activities. In this book, learning outcomes are linked to achievement objectives as follows.

A learning need is identified. For example, your students may need to describe feelings and ask questions about sleep, rest, and relaxation. This learning outcome can be linked to level 1, strand A, achievement objective 1 and is therefore identified as related to achievement objective 1A1 (students will describe feelings and ask questions about health, growth, development, and personal needs).

Possible learning outcomes and their links to the curriculum are listed here. For the learning outcome described above, teachers could refer to the learning experience Just Relax within the aspect Looking after Myself. They could assess whether their students have achieved the learning outcome by recording observations of a class discussion about sleep, rest, and relaxation.