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Well-being, hauora


The concept of well-being encompasses the physical, mental and emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of health. This concept is recognised by the World Health Organisation.


Hauora is a Māori philosophy of health unique to New Zealand. It comprises taha tinana, taha hinengaro, taha whanau, and taha wairua.

Taha tinana - Physical well-being

the physical body, its growth, development, and ability to move, and ways of caring for it

Taha hinengaro - Mental and emotional well-being

coherent thinking processes, acknowledging and expressing thoughts and feelings and responding constructively

Taha whanau - Social well-being

family relationships, friendships, and other interpersonal relationships; feelings of belonging, compassion, and caring; and social support

Taha wairua - Spiritual well-being

the values and beliefs that determine the way people live, the search for meaning and purpose in life, and personal identity and self-awareness (For some individuals and communities, spiritual well- being is linked to a particular religion; for others, it is not.)

Each of these four dimensions of hauora influences and supports the others. 

Dr Mason Durie's whare tapawha model compares hauora to the four walls of a whare, each wall representing a different dimension:

  • taha wairua (the spiritual side)
  • taha hinengaro (thoughts and feelings)
  • taha tinana (the physical side) 
  • taha whanau (family). 

All four dimensions are necessary for strength and symmetry. (Adapted from Mason Durie's Whaiora: Māori Health Development. Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1994, page 70).

Achievement objectives